Post-traumatic headache (PTH) is commonly reported after concussion. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine. We explored how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CGRP-alpha (CALCA) and the receptor activity modifying protein-1 (RAMP1) related to headache burden during the first week after concussion.
A prospective study was performed in 34 collegiate athletes who sustained a concussion. Participants completed the symptom evaluation checklist from the SCAT3 within 48 h of injury (V1), and again 4 (V2) and 7 (V3) days after injury. For each visit, the self-reported score (0–6) for headache, pressure in head, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light/noise were reported and summed to calculate the headache burden. A saliva sample was obtained and genotyped for CALCA (rs3781719) and RAMP1 (rs10185142). RAMP1 (TT, TC, CC) and CALCA (AA, AG, GG) were dichotomized (A , A- and T , T-, respectively), and concatenated (T A , T A-, T-A , T-A-) for analyses.
Headache Burden at Visit 1 was greatest in T A compared to T-A , and trended toward a significant difference with T A-. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed the presence of significant visit main effects (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.404), but the group (p = 0.055) and interaction effects only trended (p = 0.094). Pearson’s χ2-tests revealed that 88% of those with return-to play (RTP) exclusions ≥15 days had PTH with multi-sensory symptoms (PTH SENS) as compared to 35% in those with RTP < 14 day.
Knowledge of RAMP1 and CALCA genotypes appear to improve an understanding the presenting features and magnitude of headache burden after concussion injury.