Despite contributing to neurocognitive deficits, intracortical demyelination after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is understudied. This study uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to map intracortical myelin and its change in healthy controls and after mild TBI (mTBI). Acute mTBI involves reductions in relative myelin content primarily in lateral occipital regions. Demyelination mapped ~6 months post-injury is significantly more severe than that observed in typical aging (p < 0.05), with temporal, cingulate, and insular regions losing more myelin (30%, 20%, and 16%, respectively) than most other areas, although occipital regions experience 22% less demyelination. Thus, occipital regions may be more susceptible to primary injury, whereas temporal, cingulate and insular regions may be more susceptible to later manifestations of injury sequelae. The spatial profiles of aging- and mTBI-related chronic demyelination overlap substantially; exceptions include primary motor and somatosensory cortices, where myelin is relatively spared post-mTBI. These features resemble those of white matter demyelination and cortical thinning during Alzheimer's disease, whose risk increases after mTBI.