Some studies show that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with white matter hyperintensity (WMH), while other studies report no association. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the presence of an association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and WMH. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, WANFANG, and VIP were searched for available papers published up to December 2020. The outcomes were the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between different vitamin D statuses and WMH. All meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Five studies (4393 patients) were included. Compared with sufficient 25(OH)D levels, 25(OH)D deficiency was not associated with WMH (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.92–3.04; I2 = 70.2%, Pheterogeneity = 0.009), nor was 25(OH)D insufficiency (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 0.89–1.65; I2 = 48.1%, Pheterogeneity = 0.103). A decrease of 25 nmol/L in 25(OH)D levels was associated with WMH (OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.34-2.49; I2 = 0%, Pheterogeneity= 0.512). The sensitivity analyses showed that the results were robust. 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency are not associated with WMH. A decrease of 25 nmol/L in 25(OH)D levels was associated with WMH, but this result will have to be confirmed. Prospective trials, both cross-sectional and longitudinal, are necessary to examine the association between 25(OH)D levels and WMH.